Accompanying symptoms of cluster attacks: their relevance to the diagnostic criteria.
Two-hundred-and-fifty-one consecutive cluster headache (CH) patients referred to the Pavia and Parma Headache Centers were evaluated in order to verify the presence and recurrence of one or more autonomic symptoms. Data obtained show that in 2.8% of patients cluster attacks were not accompanied by localized autonomic symptoms, thus confirming the report of Ekbom. We observed a high prevalence of photophobia, nausea and vomiting. The IHS diagnostic criteria for CH may need to be modified. The high frequency of “general” autonomic symptoms seems to suggest a component of “central” drive in the physiopathology of cluster headache.